Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1January 1502 (hence Rio de Janeiro, "January River"), by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet.
The city of Rio de Janeiro was founded by the Portuguese on 1 March 1565 and was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in honour of St. Sebastian, the saint who was the namesake and patron of the Portuguese Monarch D. Sebastião.
Rio de Janeiro became the capital city on 1763, and in 1808 when the Portuguese king moved to Brazil, became the headquarters of the Portuguese kingdom until 1821. Rio de Janeiro remained as capital of Brazil until 1960, when the nation’s government was moved to Brasilia.
The city hosted the 2007 Pan American Games and the 2014 Soccer World Cup Final. Rio de Janeiro hosted the 2016 Olympic Games and the 2016 Paralympic Games, beating the finalist competitors Chicago, Tokyo, and Madrid. The city became the first South American city to host the event.
Rio has a tropical savanna climate (Aw) that closely borders a tropical monsoon climate (Am). In September average temperatures range from 19oC (average minimum) to 25oC (average maximum).
The city of Rio de Janeiro has a population of 16,000,000 people, and is well known by its diversity of races, music, culinary and lifestyles.
There are two airports in Rio de Janeiro.
GALEÃO - TOM JOBIM INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (GIG), located in “Ilha do Governador” (Governor’s Island), is linked by highways to the city center and main touristic areas, including Barra da Tijuca. The airport was recently renovated for the 2016 Olympic Games. All Brazilian airlines and over 20 international carriers operate at this airport, which has direct flights to several destinations in USA and Europe and to most South American capitals. A transfer service between the international airport and Barra da Tijuca will be in place during ICIEM 2017.
SANTOS DUMONT AIRPORT (SDU), located in the city center, operates domestic flights linking Rio to several Brazilian destinations. An excellent taxi and bus service links the airport to main touristic areas.
The Windsor Convention and ExpoCenter is located in the sophisticated Barra da Tijuca district, connected to Windsor Oceânico and Windsor Barra hotels, and a short walk from the beach.
It is equipped with a complete structure for conventions and conferences with modern and spacious meeting rooms.
The Windsor Oceânico Hotel is connected to the Windsor Barra Hotel by an air-conditioned walkway. It is the largest integrated convention center in Rio de Janeiro.
The Windsor Convention & ExpoCenter is located in the Barra da Tijuca district, a modern and safe area of Rio de Janeiro. The convention center is linked to two hotels and has several other hotel at short distance The convention center is connected to the international airport through a highway (35 km). It is recommended to hire the official transfer service, but if not there are non-stop buses running from the airport to a terminal in Barra da Tijuca, from where travellers could take a short taxi ride to the hotel. A metro line (station 1.1 km from the convention center) goes to Ipanema (15 km), Copacabana (17 km) and city center/historic distric (25 km).
Because of its continental dimensions, Brazil has 3 time zones. Rio de Janeiro follows the Brasilia time (UTC/GMT -3 hours). In September Rio de Janeiro time will be 4 hours ahead of California, 1 hour ahead of New York and 5 hours behind Frankfurt.
Most offices open from 09:00 to 18: 00h Monday to Friday, usually closed on Saturday and Sunday. Banks are open Monday through Friday from 10:00 to 16:00h. Most major shopping malls are open Monday to Saturday from 10:00 to 22:00h and on Sundays from 15:00 to 21: 00h. Rio has several convenience stores open 7/24.
The language spoken in Brazil is Portuguese. Basic English is widely spoken and a large share of the population understands well Spanish.
TEMPERATURE IN SEPTEMBER
The average maximum temperature in Rio de Janeiro in September is 25 oC (or 77oF), and the average minimum is 19 oC (or 66oF). Average precipitation in September is 87 mm.
Rio de Janeiro is a very informal city. The dress code for the congress is casual or business casual.
ELECTRICITY / VOLTAGE
The electric voltage in Rio is 110 V. Travel adapters are required for certain electric devices.
Rio de Janeiro has an excellent telephone and 4G service. Country code for Brazil is 55 and area code for Rio de Janeiro is 21. Wifi is available in most hotels and in many public areas.
The Brazilian monetary unit is the Brazilian Real (BRL). Official exchange rate is available at the Brazilian Central Bank website (http://www4.bcb.gov.br/pec/conversao/conversao.asp). Is not usual that taxi or shops accept foreign currencies, but cash, especially US dollars, can be exchanged by Brazilian Reals in hotels, banks and exchange offices. Many ATMs allow cash with foreign cards.
The main credit cards are accepted in Brazil, particularly in Rio. Visa, MasterCard, Diners and American Express are accepted in almost all hotels, restaurants and shops. If you want to pay a taxi with credit card, check with the taxi before boarding it this payment is accepted (not all taxis take credit cards)
Brazil adopts the principle of reciprocity of treatment, that is, entry visa is required for citizens from countries that require an entry visa for Brazilians. This rule applies to the United States, Canada, Australia, and some other countries. In the remaining cases, visa is exempted for up to 90 days. Citizens from the European Union and South America do not need an entry visa. Passport must be valid for at least 6 months after the date foreseen for arrival in Brazil.
For visa information, please access the link: http://www.portalconsular.itamaraty.gov.br/images/qgrv/QGRV-simples-ing-08-12-16.pdf.
To request an invitation letter for visa purposes, please contact: email@example.com.
As in any big city, it is important to consider your personal security.
Rio has a large fleet of taxis, almost all equipped with air conditioning. Ordinary taxis, identified by the color yellow, roam the streets metered. Special taxis operated by licensed companies serving the airports and hotels or can be called by telephone. At airports and major shopping centers, there are taxi services that operate on a fixed fare by area which is paid in advance at a taxi company desk before you board.
Hotels: hotels generally include the service charge on accounts.
Restaurants: tips are optional but are often found at the end of the bill as a "suggestion".
The usual tip in restaurants is 10 % of the bill.
Taxis: Taxi drivers do not require a tip, although most passengers round the tariff to be paid when you are satisfied with the service.
The Rio de Janeiro has an intense cultural life, offering more than 200 places of movies, theater, musical and artistic exhibitions, and more than 50 museums.
September 7 is a national holiday in Brazil (Independence Day)
USEFUL TELEPHONE NUMBERS
Ambulance – 192
Fire Department – 193
Civil Defense – 199
Civil Police – 197
Federal Police – 194
Military Police – 190
Domestic Airport – +55 21 3814-7070
International Airport - +55 21 3004-6050 / 3398-4527 / 3398-4526
Bus Terminal +55 21 2263-4857/ 3213-1800 R 397
The international certificate of yellow fever vaccination must be presented upon arrival in Brazil by visitors coming from: Republic of Angola, Benin, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Colombia, Ecuador, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Republic of Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Republic of Liberia, Federal Republic of Nigeria, Peru, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Sierra Leone, Sudan, Venezuela and Zaire.
Army History Museum and Copacabana Fort
Built in 1914 in order to buttress the defense of the Guanabara Bay, the Copacabana Fort saw one of the rebellions that formed part of the Lieutenant's Revolt in 1922. In 1987, its weaponry was removed and it was turned into the Army History Museum, displaying weapons, items and panels representing Brazil's military triumphs.
This Center launched a new cycle in the cultural life of Rio de Janeiro. Built ten meters off the ground in the heart of Barra da Tijuca, this sculpture-construction is one of the most important and complete venues for presenting the arts. Here, music, song, theater, cinema and dance, the plastic arts and other cultural expressions of Brazil and many other nations have benefitted from the level of excellence that has made this complex into a major hub of appreciation of culture, and building up audiences.
Christ the Redeemer
The statue of Christ the Redeemer perches atop the Corcovado peak, which is a don't-miss attraction for visitors to Rio de Janeiro. The world's largest and most famous Art Deco sculpture, its planning began in 1921, headed up by engineer Heritor da Silva Costa during the five years between 1926 and 1931, when this monument was inaugurated. A pleasant funicular train trip leads to the foot of the monument lasting some twenty minutes, running through the Atlantic Rainforest to the top of the peak. For easier access by visitors, three panoramic elevators and four escalators have been installed. The views are stunning, making this an unforgettable outing for anyone visiting Rio.
The Tijuca National Park is an oasis packed with exotic species and remnants of the history of Brazil, with many points of interest such as the Vista Chinesa and Mesa do Imperador belvederes.
The Botanical Gardens are a major attraction for visitors to Rio de Janeiro, as well as researchers studying the hundreds of species growing there, in addition to housing rare collections of bromeliads and orchids, together with ancient trees and other exotic plants.
Located in Largo da Lapa, where in the past focused Rio's nightlife, the Arcos da Lapa remain as the main monument of colonial Rio. Its magnificent structure contains 42 arches in two tiers. It was originally built to supply the city with water from the Carioca River, name that gave his first name, Carioca Aqueduct. About aqueduct, now travels the tram connecting the center to the ancient streets of Santa Teresa, picturesque neighborhood with an artistic community and wide range of bars, restaurants, museums, cultural centers and art studios.
Named in honor of Journalist Mário Filho, the Maracanã Stadium was inaugurated in 1950. Since then, it has seen many major moments in Brazilian and world soccer, as well as hosting large-scale shows. Guided tours of the stadium offer visitors fascinating glimpses into little-known aspects of these events.
The Sugar Loaf cable-car was the first of its kind in Brazil and the third in the world, linking the Urca hill to the Morro do Pão de Açucar, better known as the Sugar Loaf hill. Since then, more than 37 million people have travelled in these cable-cars up these two hills, which offer dazzling views over the city, including Botafogo cove, Copacabana beach and the entrance to the Guanabara Bay. In summer, the amphitheater on the Morro da Urca hill hosts shows and other after-dark entertainment, set against the glittering backdrop of the city lights.
The Parque Lage offers an enchanting setting with 52 hectares of green parklands. Once an old sugar plantation, this park forms part of the historical heritage of Rio.
One of the most picturesque neighborhoods in Rio de Janeiro, the steep streets of Santa Teresa are divided by its old electric tram rails, which will start running again in 2015, according to the State government. Packed with squares and other cultural options that offer dazzling views over the North, South and downtown areas, this neighborhood is packed with old townhouses that today are home to art studios, handcraft stores, bars and restaurants. Visitors deciding to walk up to Santa Teresa from the Lapa arches downtown will be able to admire the most famous stairway in Rio, the Selarón, with 215 steps faced with colorful tile mosaics. This stairway is named in honor of the Chilean artist who created this work of art.
One of the most imposing buildings in Rio de Janeiro, the Theatro Municipal was inaugurated in July 14, 1909. Facing the Praça Floriano square, better known as Cinelândia, in downtown Rio, this is one of the most important opera houses in South America, its fascinating history entwined with the growth of Brazilian culture. For just over a hundred years, it has welcomed international performers as well as leading Brazilian names in the fields of dance, music and opera.
One of the most famous beaches in the world, curving along the Av. Atlantic. Its 3.4 km long start at Av. Princesa Isabel and end at the Copacabana Fort. Being the widest beach in Rio, Copacabana is football and beach volleyball.
Located in Praça Mauá, the Museum of Tomorrow it is a science museum in the city of Rio de Janeiro, that promotes exploration, reflection and planning of possibilities for the future.
Museum of Tomorrow examines the past, considers current trends, and explores future scenarios for the next 50 years, approached from a perspective of sustainability and conviviality. Visitors are encouraged to reflect on the Anthropocene era - the geologic era in which we live, when man began to alter the climate, degrade biomes and interfere with ecosystems – and on their own role as part of human action and its transforming power.
Six major trends of the next half-century are explored: climate changes; changes in biodiversity; growing population and increased life span; greater cultural integration and differentiation; advances in technology; and expanded knowledge.
The region of Búzios and Cabo Frio was inhabited by the Tupinamba Indians until the beginning of the 17th century. A series of facts led to the settlement of the place, and finally to its transformation into what is now one of the most famous tourist destinations in the world for those who are in Search for sun, beach and sea.
However, until the mid-1960s, it was a fishing village with few houses, but standing out for the beauty of nature on the spot.
Imagine being in the extreme southeast of Brazil. Beautiful beaches, clear marine waters that present an incredible variation of three shades of blue that enchant the eyes of the visitors. And still submerge in one of the three recognized areas in the country (along with Abrolhos and Fernando de Noronha) as exelencia for diving.
A beautiful colonial city, considered National Heritage, preserves until today its innumerable natural and architectural charms.
Strolling through the Historic Center of Paraty is entering another era, where the walk is slow because of the pebble stones of its streets.
The buildings of their mansions and churches translate a period style and the mysterious Masonic symbols that adorn their walls lead us to imagine what life in Brazil was like in the old days. The ban on car traffic in the Center contributes to this journey through the "Time Tunnel".
Petrópolis is a municipality located in the interior of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, also known as Imperial City.
The mild climate, the historic buildings and the abundant vegetation are great tourist attractions. In addition, the city has a busy commerce and services, besides agricultural production (with emphasis on fruit growing) and industry.
Angra do Reis ('The Bay of Kings') is one of Brazil's most dazzling and breathtaking destinations. Composed of 365 islands and over 2 000 beaches, Angra dos Reis is the tropical vacation destination of any travelers' fantasies. The city's center is reminiscent of smaller colonial cities and boasts amazing historical monuments, churches and architecture. Ilha Grande, the largest island of the 365, serves as the main attraction and was used as the colonial center for pirates who originally settled there. Ocean tours and activities are widely available and provide the opportunity to visit the different islands and beaches as well as enjoy the exclusivity of their sandy shores.
Foz do Iguaçu is a Brazilian municipality in the state of Paraná. The city is internationally known by the Iguaçu Falls, chosen as one of the 7 Wonders of Nature. Also constituted by Ciudad del Este, in Paraguay, and Puerto Iguazú, in Argentina, countries with which the city borders.
It is located in the south of Mato Grosso and in the northwest of Mato Grosso do Sul, both Brazilian states, as well as encompassing northern Paraguay and eastern Bolivia (which is called the Bolivian Chaco).
Bonito is a Brazilian municipality in the Central-West region, located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. It is a pole of ecotourism worldwide, its main attractions are natural landscapes, transparent river waterfalls, waterfalls, caves, caves and dolinas. Together with Jardim, Guia Lopes da Laguna and Bodoquena, it is the main municipality that integrates the tourist complex of the Serra da Bodoquena National Park, presenting great tourist potential.
The Amazon represents more than half of the remaining tropical rainforests on the planet and comprises the highest biodiversity in a tropical rainforest in the world. It is one of the six great Brazilian biomes. The Amazon Forest was pre-selected in 2008 as a candidate for one of the New 7 Wonders of Nature by the Seven Wonders of the Modern World Foundation.
Fernando de Noronha is a Brazilian archipelago of the state of Pernambuco. Considered a paradise, Fernando de Noronha possesses golden sands, turquoise blue and emerald sea, coral, splendid marine life, forest, rock formations among other wonders naturals.
Salvador, is known as the "land of all saints". Catholicism, brought by the Portuguese, is very present in its 365 churches scattered throughout the city, one for each day of the year.
The famous Bahian gastronomy was also born of improvised delicacies in the slave quarters of the African slaves. The seasoning is unique and the satisfaction is for all tastes.
The history of Brasilia, the capital of the Federative Republic of Brazil, located in the Federal District, in the heart of the country. There are many spaces and options for cultural and recreational activities in this city, where the richness and diversity of every corner of Brazil vibrates in its inhabitants. The urban plan of Brasilia left space for green areas, with beautiful trees and extensive grassy areas that are part of the daily lives of those who live in the Plano Piloto.
The natural beauties of the Northeast extend in beaches, walks, vegetation, forms of relief, rivers and waterfalls.
SOME NORTHEAST BEACHES: Praia do Amor, Praia da Pipa (Rio Grande do Norte); Praia dos Carneiros, Tamandaré (Pernambuco); Praia do Espelho, Porto Seguro (Bahia); Praia de Japaratinga, Maragogi (Alagoas); Praia do Leão, em Fernando de Noronha (Pernambuco); Praia do Madeiro, em Tibau do Sul (Rio Grande do Norte); Praia do Patacho, São Miguel dos Milagres (Alagoas) Praia de Ponta Grossa, Icapuí (CE); Praia da Baía dos Porcos, Fernando de Noronha; Praia do Encanto (Quinta Praia), em Morro de São Paulo (Bahia); Praia do Rio da Barra, Trancoso (Bahia); A Baía do Sancho (Fernando de Noronha); Praia Taipu de Fora, em Barra Grande (Bahia); Praia de Tambaba em João Pessoa (Paraíba); Moreré, ilha de Boipeba (Bahia).
Gramado is a municipality and small tourist town, southeast of Caxias do Sul and east of Nova Petrópolis in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the Serra Gaúcha region. Gramado is one of the towns along the scenic route known as Rota Romântica (Romantic Route).
The climate is maritime temperate with mild summer.